"Mandela, Nelson." (Mandela, Nelson, photograph. Reuters/Corbis-Bettmann. Reproduced by permission. ).Discovering Collection. Gale. Toronto District School Board. 14 Jan. 2010 <http://find.galegroup.com/srcx/infomark.do?&contentSet=GSRC&type=retrieve&tabID=T005&prodId=DC&docId=EJ2210004576&source=gale&userGroupName=ko_k12hs_d63&version=1.0>.

*Aparthied: an official plolicy of racial segregation formerly practiced in the Republic of South Africa, involving political, legal, and economic discrimination against nonwhites.

Early Life:
Nelson Mandela was the president of South Africa and became president in 1994. He was born on July 18th in a village called Mvezo, which is in South Africa. His father was the leader of the Thembu. He was the first person in his family to receive a western education, and was inspired to study law after witnessing the democracy of African tribal governance at an early age.

Mandela became a lawyer in Johannesburg, defending black South Africans against the government's increasingly unfair treatment. He is also a figure of the African National Congress, a political party that was trying to unite all Africans and regain their rights and freedom. He participated in boycotts, organized protests, assembled his people.

Achievements and Goals:
Nelson Mandela had two big accomplishments. He won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1993, where he was notice for his peaceful nonviolent actions to terminate apartheid in South Africa. He was the first democratically elected president in South Africa. He became president in 1994 after aperthied was abolished. He gave up his position as president in 1997 to Mr. Mbeki, and went around the world to fight for people's rights.
Nelson Mandela achieved his goal of stopping apartheid in South America. Since he was against apartheid, he participated in boycotts, organized protests, mobilized his people. In turn was labeled an enemy of the state: accused of treason, banned from political involvement, disbarred.
After the Shapesville massacre many blacks were killed, and the white rule banned the African Nation Congress (ANC). Mandela went underground. He created the MK, which was the military portion of the ANC. Nelson arranged military training in Algeria for the MK members. He launched a sabotage campaign. On his return from Algeria he was arrested for going between countries without a passport, and was tried for sabotage and attempting to overthrow the government. He was sentenced to prison life for 27 years. When he got to Robben Island where he was to be imprisoned Mandela was told to jog to the prison gate. He refused to do that and he and the other prisoners started a hunger strike to get better living conditions. The prisoners won. While Nelson was in prison he was offered freedom if he would stop his violent actions and he refused this offer. During Nelson Mandela’s jail time he had secret talks with South Africa’s president, P.W. Botha, and his successor, F.W. de Klerk. As a result, in 1990 he was freed.
Nelson Mandela made a difference by stopping sergation in South Africa. So now thanks to Mandela most people in South Africa and other parts of the world can live peacefully.

Interesting Facts:
1. Mandela's name, Rolihlahla, means "pulling the branch of a tree". It can also mean "trouble maker"
2. Mandela's first teacher, Miss. Mdlingane, named him Nelson. African people either could not or did not want to use African names, so all African children were given European names.
3. Mandela often went starved several days without food. His landlord gave him Sunday lunch.
4. One of Mandela's home had a tiny kitchen, a cement floor and a tiny roof. The toilets they had were buckets. He lived there for many years.

1. Brown, Laaren and Hort, Lenny. Nelson Mandela; A Photographic Story Of A Life. New York: DK Publishing, 2006.Kramer, Ann.
2. Mandela; The Rebel Who Led His Nation To Freedom. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society, 2005.
3. Shone, Rob. Nelson Mandela; The Life Of An African Statesman. New York: The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc., 2007.

1. "Mandela, Nelson Rolihlahla (1918-)." History Behind the Headlines. Ed. Meghan Appel O'Meara. Vol. 2. Detroit: Gale Group, 2001. Discovering Collection. Gale. Toronto District School Board. 14 Jan. 2010 <http://find.galegroup.com/srcx/infomark.do?&contentSet=GBRC&type=retrieve&tabID=T001&prodId=DC&docId=EK2439000031&source=gale&userGroupName=ko_k12hs_d63&version=1.0>.
2. "Mandela, Nelson." (Mandela, Nelson, photograph. Reuters/Corbis-Bettmann. Reproduced by permission. ).Discovering Collection. Gale. Toronto District School Board. 14 Jan. 2010 <http://find.galegroup.com/srcx/infomark.do?&contentSet=GSRC&type=retrieve&tabID=T005&prodId=DC&docId=EJ2210004576&source=gale&userGroupName=ko_k12hs_d63&version=1.0>.